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美國國會議員


The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Each state receives representation in the House proportional to its population but is entitled to at least one Representative; the most populous state, California, currently has 53 representatives. The total number of representatives is currently fixed at 435.[1] Each representative serves for a two-year term. The presiding officer of the House is the Speaker, and is elected by the members.
The bicameral Congress came from the desire of the founders to create a House "of the people" that would represent public opinion, balanced by a more deliberative Senate that would represent the individual states, and would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is often considered to be the "lower house," with the Senate as the "upper house," although the United States Constitution does not use such language. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation.
Because its members are generally elected from smaller (approximately 693,000 residents as of 2007) and more commonly homogenous districts than those from the Senate, the House is generally considered a more partisan chamber. The House was granted its own exclusive powers: the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach officials, and elect the President in electoral college deadlocks.
The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol.
 
美國眾議院美國國會兩院之一,另一院為參議院。美國各州在眾議院中擁有的席位比例以人口為基準,但至少會有一名議員。院內議員總數經法律明定為435名。眾議員任期兩年,無連任限制。眾議院議長由議員選舉產生,亦稱多數黨領袖。據美國總統繼位條例,眾議院議長繼位總統之順序僅次於兼任參議院議長的副總統,為政壇上第三重要的領袖人物。
兩院制國會的起源是因為建國者希望擁有一個貼近且跟隨民意公論的「人民議院」,並受代表各州政府、不太受大眾情緒干擾的參議院制衡。憲法規定法案須經兩院批准方能通過。
眾議院一般被認為較參議院更具黨派色彩。憲法制定者中有很多人企圖讓參議院(一開始是由州議會選舉)成為眾議院(公民直選)的制衡機構。於是「建議與同意」權(如批准條約的權力)授權僅由參議院單獨行使。眾議院也有其獨有的權力:倡議歲入法案之權、彈劾政府官員、以及在選舉人團僵持不下時選舉總統。然而,所有這些權力都可由參議院制衡(counter-check)。參議院一般較眾議院及眾議員更具威望。參議員任期較長、人數較少、且(多數情況下)較眾議員代表更多的選民。
眾議院會議廳位於首都華盛頓特區國會山莊南翼。參議院在同一建築物的北翼開會
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The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the lower house being the House of Representatives (the United States Constitution does not use these terms, however).
The Senate is regarded as a more deliberative body than the House of Representatives; the Senate is smaller and its members serve longer terms, allowing for a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere that is somewhat more insulated from public opinion than the House.[1] The Senate has several exclusive powers enumerated in Article One of the Constitution not granted to the House. For example the President cannot ratify treaties or, with rare exceptions, make important appointments — including members of the Cabinet and federal judges — without the advice and consent of the Senate.
 
美國參議院英語:United States Senate)是美國立法部門──美國國會兩院之一,另一院為眾議院。美國每一州於參議院中均有兩位議員作為代表,與各州人口無關。所以全院員額為100名議員。參議員任期六年,相互交錯,故每隔兩年改選約三分之一的席位美國副總統任參議院議長,無參議員資格;且除非是為了在表決平手時打破僵局,不得投票。參議院公認較眾議院更為審慎;參議員名額較少而任期較長,容許學院派看法與黨派之見,較眾議院更易自外於公共輿論。參議院擁有若干表列於憲法而未授予眾議院的權力。其中最重要的是,美國總統批准條約或任命重要人事時,須「採酌參議院之建議並得其認可」(美國憲法第一修正案)。
兩院制的國會是於制憲會議中所訂立的康乃迪克協議所得的結果。依該協議,各州在眾議院中的代表權以人口為基礎,但在參議院中具均等代表權。憲法規定法律之制定須經兩院通過。參議院單獨擁有的權力較眾議院單獨擁有的權力更為重要。其結果使得參議院(上議院)所負的責任較眾議院(下議院)更為廣泛。
美國參議院承襲古羅馬元老院(Senate)之名。其議場座落於首都華盛頓特區,位於國會山莊北翼。眾議院則在同一幢建築的南翼召開會議。
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